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The word "robot" was first used by Czech playwright Karl Chapek in 1921. His work, Rossum's Universal robots, dealt with a class of slaves, artificially created humanoid servants fighting for their freedom. The Czech word "robota" means "forced slavery". The word "robotics" was first used by the famous science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941.
The word "robotics" is based on the word "robot", coined in 1920 by Czech writer Karel Chapek and his brother Joseph for Karel Chapek's science fiction play (Rossum universal robots), first staged in 1921 and enjoyed success with the audience. In it, the owner of the plant adjusts the production of many androids, which first work without rest, but then rebel and destroy their creators.Robotics is based on such disciplines as electronics, mechanics, Cybernetics, telemechanics, mechatronics computer science, as well as radio and electrical engineering. There are construction, industrial, household, medical, aviation and extreme (military, space, underwater) robotics parts.You can use several approaches to classify robots-for example, by scope, by purpose, by method of movement, etc. by the scope of the main application can be identified industrial robots, research robots, robots used in training, special robots.
Manipulation robot is an automatic machine (stationary or mobile) consisting of an Executive device in the form of a manipulator having several degrees of mobility, and a software control device that serves to perform motor and control functions in the production process. Such robots are produced in floor, suspended and portal versions. Received the greatest distribution in machine-building and instrument-making industries.A mobile robot is an automatic machine that has a moving chassis with automatically controlled actuators. Such robots can be wheeled, walking and tracked.
Robotic parts are also popular in the field of education as modern high-tech research tools in the field of automatic control theory and mechatronics. Their use in various educational institutions of secondary and higher professional education allows to implement the concept of "learning on projects", which is the basis of such a large joint educational program of the United States and the European Union, as ILERT. The application of the capabilities of robotic systems in engineering education makes it possible to simultaneously develop professional skills in several related disciplines: mechanics, control theory, circuit design, programming, information theory. The demand for complex knowledge contributes to the development of relations between research teams. In addition, students already in the process of specialized training are faced with the need to solve real practical problems.Robots have been successfully used in production for decades. Robots successfully replace humans when performing routine, energy-intensive, dangerous operations. Robots do not get tired, they do not need pauses for rest, water and food. Robots do not demand higher wages and are not members of trade unions.
As a rule, industrial robotic parts do not have artificial intelligence. Typical is the repetition of the same movements of the manipulator on a rigid program.Great success has been achieved, for example, in the use of robots on the conveyors of automobile plants. There are already plans for the automotive industry, where all the processes of assembling cars and transporting semi-finished products will be carried out by robots, and people will only control them.In the nuclear and chemical industries, robots are widely used for work in radioactive and chemically hazardous environments.A robot for automated diagnostics of power lines, consisting of an unmanned helicopter and a device for landing and movement on a lightning cable, was created.In the industry of all countries of the world in 2016, 1.8 million pieces of robots were used, it is predicted that by 2020 their number will exceed 3.5 million pieces.It is predicted that the volume of sales of robots in 2016-2019 for use in logistics, construction and demolition will be 177 thousand units.
What is robotics?
A robot is a programmable electronic device capable of performing tasks and interacting with the external environment without human assistance. Robotics is the scientific and technical basis for the design, production and application of robots.The word "robot" was first used by Czech playwright Karl Chapek in 1921. His work, Rossum's Universal robots, dealt with a class of slaves, artificially created humanoid servants fighting for their freedom. The Czech word "robota" means "forced slavery". The word robotics part was first used by the famous science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941.Basic components of the robot.Robot components: body,frame, control system, manipulators, and chassis.Body -frame the body, or frame, of a robot can have any shape and size. Initially, the body frame provides the robot design. Most people are familiar with the humanoid robots used for filming movies, but in reality most robots have nothing to do with human appearance. As a rule, in the project of the robot the attention is paid to functionality, instead of appearance.